Extraction of minerals according to the Law on Environmental Impact Assessment refers to the types of planned activities and facilities that may have a significant impact on the environment and are subject to mandatory environmental impact assessment. This procedure is carried out before the start of any activity of the enterprise, including preparatory work or construction. The company must receive a positive opinion from the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources of Ukraine. To this end, a report on the assessment of the impact of planned activities on the environment is being developed. The report includes information about the current state of the territory, the presence of protected or cultural facilities, describes the technological scheme of production, determines the possible impact of the company on all environmental components (atmosphere, water, soil, climate, flora, fauna, etc.) and prescribes measures that the company will exercise to minimize it.
The public participates in the procedure. The information of the report is published on the website and placed in places accessible to the public. People, public and scientific organizations can submit proposals for detailing the report, questions and comments. Based on the results of the analysis of the report and the comments received, the Ministry provides an opinion. If the conclusion is negative and the Ministry considers the impact on the environment is unacceptable, the company cannot operate at all. You need to improve the development system, or design tools to reduce the impact and try to go through the procedure again. If the conclusion is positive and the impact is acceptable, the company can start operations, but taking into account the conclusions. The conclusions indicate what additional research needs to be conducted (if necessary), what measures to reduce the environmental impact the company should implement and how and how often the condition of environmental components in the area of ​​influence of the company should be monitored.
During the activity the enterprise on any direction of influence should receive the allowing documentation. The most typical, which are mandatory for all mining companies are:
Depending on the situation, there may be other documents. For example, if there is a well, then there should be its passport, if there are treatment facilities, then there should be their passport and instruction of people who work with them, and so on.
An important environmental aspect of the enterprise is post-project monitoring. The company is obliged to control its impact on various components of the environment. The general requirements for such monitoring are set out in the conclusion to the Environmental Impact Assessment Report. The company develops a monitoring plan and schedule, coordinates it with the Ministry. According to this plan, organizations that have the appropriate Certificate conduct monitoring. This usually includes analysis of the air in the work area and on the border of the sanitary, analysis of wastewater and water bodies into which effluents are discharged, analysis of soils, measurement of noise levels.
If the company may have another influence, it is also investigated. For example, if there are Red Book species nearby, then study the state of flora and fauna, if the development is deep enough, then study the groundwater level. The purpose of post-project monitoring is to identify any discrepancies and deviations in the projected levels of impact and effectiveness of measures to prevent and reduce environmental pollution.
The company is regularly inspected by the State Ecological Inspectorate of Ukraine, which monitors the state of compliance with the requirements of environmental legislation of Ukraine. In case of violations, an order is issued to eliminate them. If the company does not eliminate the violation, a fine is imposed. In case of serious violations, the activity of the enterprise may be suspended or suspended altogether.